Friday, July 16, 2010

1a 2ae q41 a4: Whether the six species of fear are suitably assigned? Yes.

Convenienter Damascenus assignet sex species timoris; scilicet, "segnitiem, erubescentiam, verecundiam, admirationem, stuporem, agoniam", quia illae species quae supra positae sunt, accipiuntur secundum diversitatem obiecti, et non secundum effectus et secundum quasdam speciales rationes.

Six species of fear are suitably assigned by Damascene (De Fide Orth. ii, 15); namely, "laziness, shamefacedness, shame, amazement, stupor, and anxiety", because those species are derived from the diversity of objects, and not from the diversity of effects and certain specific formal aspects.

Sicut dictum est, timor est de futuro malo quod excedit potestatem timentis, ut scilicet ei resisti non possit. Sicut autem bonum hominis, ita et malum, potest considerari vel in operatione ipsius, vel in exterioribus rebus.

As stated above (q41 a2), fear regards a future evil which surpasses the power of him that fears, so that it is irresistible. Now man's evil, like his good, may be considered either in his action or in external things.

In operatione autem ipsius hominis, potest duplex malum timeri. Primo quidem, labor gravans naturam. Et sic causatur segnities, cum scilicet aliquis refugit operari, propter timorem excedentis laboris.

In his action he has a twofold evil to fear. First, there is the toil that burdens his nature. And hence arises "laziness," as when a man shrinks from work for fear of too much toil.

Secundo, turpitudo laedens opinionem. Et sic, si turpitudo timeatur in actu committendo, est erubescentia, si autem sit de turpi iam facto, est verecundia.

Secondly, there is the disgrace which damages him in the opinion of others. And thus, if disgrace is feared in a deed that is yet to be done, there is "shamefacedness"; if, however, it be a deed already done, there is "shame."

Malum autem quod in exterioribus rebus consistit, triplici ratione potest excedere hominis facultatem ad resistendum. Primo quidem, ratione suae magnitudinis; cum scilicet aliquis considerat aliquod magnum malum, cuius exitum considerare non sufficit. Et sic est admiratio.

On the other hand, the evil that consists in external things may surpass man's faculty of resistance in three formal aspects. First by the aspect of its magnitude; when, that is to say, a man considers some great evil the outcome of which he is unable to gauge: and then there is "amazement."

Secundo, ratione dissuetudinis; quia scilicet aliquod malum inconsuetum nostrae considerationi offertur, et sic est magnum nostra reputatione. Et hoc modo est stupor, qui causatur ex insolita imaginatione.

Secondly, by the aspect of its being unwonted; because, to wit, some unwonted evil arises before us, and on that account is great in our estimation. And then there is "stupor," which is caused by the imagination of something unwonted.

Tertio modo, ratione improvisionis quia scilicet provideri non potest: sicut futura infortunia timentur. Et talis timor dicitur agonia.

Thirdly, by the aspect of its being unforeseen: thus future misfortunes are feared, and fear of this kind is called "anxiety."