Thursday, November 30, 2006

Q59 A3: Whether there is free-will in the angels?

Yes. There is free-will in the angels because only an agent endowed with an intellect can act with a judgment which is free, in so far as it apprehends the common note of goodness (from which it can judge this or the other thing to be good).

Consequently, wherever there is intellect, there is free-will. It is therefore manifest that just as there is intellect, so is there free-will in the angels, and in a higher degree of perfection than in man.